Fructose 1,6‐bisphosphatase (FBPase) from the larvae of the gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana, was purified to homogeneity with a final specific activity of 1.6 U/mg protein. The enzyme had a native molecular weight of 74.0 ± 6.5 kD and a subunit molecular weight of 37.6 ± 3.0 kD; the dimeric structure of the enzyme in this species is unusual. The pH optimum was 7.00 in imidazole buffer at 22°C and rose to 7.31 at 5°C. An Arrhenius plot of enzyme activity vs. temperature was linear with an activation energy of 91 ± 4.1 kJ/mol−1. Km values for FBPase decreased from 4.7 ± 0.34 μM at 22°C to 1.3 ± 0.05 μM at 5°C. No allosteric activators were identified, but the enzyme was inhibited by fructose 2,6‐bisphosphate (F2,6P2), AMP, ADP, dihydroxyacetonephosphate, glycerol, and KCI. Inhibition by AMP and F2,6P2 increased at low temperature, and effects of these compounds may be key to preventing futile cycling of carbon at the FBPase/phosphofructokinase loci during the biosynthesis of glycerol cryoprotectant. Oppositely, glycerol clearance in the spring and reconversion into glycogen is promoted by interactions of temperature, inhibitors, and glycerol that promote FBPase activity: I50 values for AMP and F2,6P2 increase at 22°C (compared with 5°C), high glycerol levels override F2,6P2 inhibition of the enzyme, and deinhibitors (ATP, citrate) partially reverse AMP inhibition of the enzyme.

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Keywords cryoprotectant production, Epiblema scudderiana, gluconeogenesis, glycerol catabolism, insect cold‐hardiness
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Journal Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Holden, C.P. (Clark P.), & Storey, K. (1995). Fructose‐1,6‐bisphosphatase from a cold‐hardy insect: Control of cryoprotectant glycerol catabolism. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 28(3), 225–235. doi:10.1002/arch.940280304