The number of location-aware services over the Internet continues growing. Some of these require the client's geographic location for security-sensitive applications. Examples include location-aware authentication, location-aware access policies, fraud prevention, complying with media licensing, and regulating online gambling/voting. An adversary can evade existing geolocation techniques, e.g., by faking GPS coordinates or employing a non-local IP address through proxy and virtual private networks. We devise Client Presence Verification (CPV), a delay-based verification technique designed to verify an assertion about a device's presence inside a prescribed geographic region. CPV does not identify devices by their IP addresses. Rather, the device's location is corroborated in a novel way by leveraging geometric properties of triangles, which prevents an adversary from manipulating measured delays. To achieve high accuracy, CPV mitigates Internet path asymmetry using a novel method to deduce one-way application-layer delays to/from the client's participating device, and mines these delays for evidence supporting/refuting the asserted location. We evaluate CPV through detailed experiments on PlanetLab, exploring various factors that affect its efficacy, including the granularity of the verified location, and the verification time. Results highlight the potential of CPV for practical adoption.

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Keywords Geolocation, Internet measurements, Location-aware authentication, Location-based services, Location-verification
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Journal IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Abdou, A. (AbdelRahman), Matrawy, A, & Van Oorschot, P. (2015). CPV: Delay-based location verification for the internet. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, PP(99). doi:10.1109/TDSC.2015.2451614