As we march down the road of automation in robotics and artificial intelligence, we will need to automate an increasing amount of ethical decision-making in order for our devices to operate independently from us. But automating ethical decision-making raises novel questions for engineers and designers, who will have to make decisions about how to accomplish that task. For example, some ethical decision-making involves hard moral cases, which in turn requires user input if we are to respect established norms surrounding autonomy and informed consent. The author considers this and other ethical considerations that accompany the automation of ethical decision-making. He proposes some general ethical requirements that should be taken into account in the design room, and sketches a design tool that can be integrated into the design process to help engineers, designers, ethicists, and policymakers decide how best to automate certain forms of ethical decision-making.

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Journal Applied Artificial Intelligence
Millar, J. (2016). An Ethics Evaluation Tool for Automating Ethical Decision-Making in Robots and Self-Driving Cars. Applied Artificial Intelligence, 30(8), 787–809. doi:10.1080/08839514.2016.1229919