This analysis examines the disharmony in American-Canadian relations in the period from 2001 to 2005. Canada and the United States co-operated in the early days after the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, managing their mutual border and fighting the war in Afghanistan. Yet they soon came into conflict over American plans to invade Iraq and create a ballisticmissile defence [BMD] system for North America. President George W. Bush and Paul Cellucci, his ambassador in Ottawa, were insensitive to Canadian concerns. Canadian leaders sent mixed messages to Washington, hinting that they would support a war in Iraq and participate in the BMD system, but ultimately deciding against each. The article examines the limitations of the tolerant ally interpretation of the Canadian-American relationship and illuminates the role of leadership in the rupture that took place between the two countries.

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Journal Diplomacy and Statecraft
Azzi, S.C, & Hillmer, N. (2016). Intolerant allies: Canada and the George W. Bush administration, 2001–2005. Diplomacy and Statecraft, 27(4), 726–745. doi:10.1080/09592296.2016.1238704