A yield surface is proposed that can be fit to the plastic flow properties of a broad class of solids which exhibit plastic compressibility and different yield points in tension and compression. The yield surface is proposed to describe cellular solids, including foamed metals, and designed to be fit to three simple experimental results: (1) the compressive stress-strain response (including densification), (2) the difference between the tensile and compressive yield points and (3) the degree of compressibility of the foam, as measured by the lateral expansion during a uniaxial compression test. The model is implemented using finite elements and used to study the effects of plastic compressibility on two problems: the compression of a doubly notched specimen and indentation by a spherical indenter.

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Conference Proceedings of the 1998 MRS Spring Symposium
Miller, R. E, & Hutchinson, John W. (1998). Continuum plasticity model for the constitutive behaviour of foamed metals. In Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings (pp. 39–44).