For CDMA (code-division multiple-access) wireless communications systems, orthogonal signaling with noncoherent detection has been proposed when a reference phase is not available. In this paper, orthogonal signaling using Walsh signals is considered. Performance of the channel using error-correcting coding together with 1) bit-by-bit interleaving or 2) Walsh word-by-word interleaving is investigated. Simulation results show that for several types of fading and non-fading channels with practical amounts of interleaving and with practical power control, the second technique with complete soft decision decoding that has added complexity in the decoder gives significant reduction in the required signal to interference ratio (SIR) over the first technique.

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Journal IEEE Transactions on Communications
Chang, L.F. (Li Fung), Sollenberger, N.R. (Nelson R.), Ling, F. (Fuyun), & Falconer, D.D. (1995). Comparison of Two Convolutional Orthogonal Coding Techniques for CDMA Radio Communications Systems. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 43(6), 2028–2037. doi:10.1109/26.387443