This study explored the construct of solitary-active play as a behavioral marker for maladjustment in the preschool. One hundred fifty-three children were observed during free play in preschool over a two-week period. Additional measures included parental ratings of child temperament and attitude towards school, teacher ratings of behavior problems, and child interview assessments of vocabulary and academic achievement. Results indicated that, as compared to their peers, children who frequently engaged in solitary-active behaviors were temperamentally less attentive, more difficult to soothe, behaved more shyly, displayed more externalizing problems, performed more poorly on assessments of early academic skills, and had a less positive attitude towards school. Results are discussed in terms of the potential of solitary-active behavior to act as a marker variable for various forms of social and academic maladjustment in the preschool.

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Journal Journal of Research in Childhood Education
Coplan, R, Wichmann, C. (Cherami), & Lagacé-Séguin, D.G. (Daniel G.). (2001). Solitary-active play behavior: A marker variable for maladjustment in the preschool?. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 15(2), 164–172. doi:10.1080/02568540109594957