The purpose is to draw on the empirical evidence that is presented in the case studies, together with other sources, and to attempt to point to new directions for both development theory and development practice in Africa. The human potential, basic wisdom and knowledge of Africa's local peoples have been seriously underestimated. A basic objective of development from within is to allow local people to become the subject, not the object, of development strategies. Given the opportunity to do so, they have shown themselves to be perfectly capable of making rational choices regarding their own destinies. -from Author