The purpose of this paper will be to explore the relationship between modern cartography and GIS. Initially the computer was used in cartography to automate existing map production. The map is now only one of a variety of cartographic products and the cognitive function of cartography has been strengthened as cartographers recognize the potential of what Nyerges has called deep data structures. Cartography is now concerned with geographic information processing rather than map production and consequently should be a central element of any Geographic Information System. The convergence of modern cartography with GIS should result in the development of a new generation of systems. -from Author