This chapter has argued that there is a need for a revitalized conceptual base for cartography, but in the final analysis cartography will be judged not by its concepts and theories but by the value which society places on its products. The need for cartography's traditional product - the paper map - will continue, but this market is unlikely to grow at a rapid rate, and if cartography is to flourish then the paper map will have to be supplemented and complemented by new products, and the topics to which cartography is applied must be expanded. This will require imagination and initiative by cartographers. This is primarily a human not a technological problem. -Author