This paper examines the arguments for and against the introduction of computer-assisted cartography in a Third World context. The general arguments will be considered by using case studies from Nigeria, India and China. Computer-assisted cartography can be an even more appropriate form of technology in developing nations than in industrial societies but it must be seen within the context of a new approach to cartography. In this respect the technological aspects are only one, and perhaps not even the most important issue. -from Author