This study examines macro-level organisational determinants of women in management. Specifically, we examined organisational characteristics and strategies, including firm levels of internationalisation, firm foreign ownership, chief executive officer gender and the active recruitment of women, as predictors of an organisation's level of representation of women in management. Results from a survey of 278 firms indicated that the presence of a female chief executive officer and an organisation's active recruitment of women are positively associated with a firm's percentage of women in management while firm internationalisation and firm foreign ownership are negatively associated with the representation of women in management. Overall, these findings suggest that although firms exercise discretion with respect to hiring and promoting women, they are also constrained by the external environment and organisational characteristics. For example, firms with higher levels of firm internationalisation and that are foreign-owned may limit their efforts and investment in the advancement of women into management.

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Keywords female CEOs, firm internationalisation, foreign ownership, women in management
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Journal Human Resource Management Journal
Ng, E.S. (Eddy S.), & Sears, G. (2017). The glass ceiling in context: the influence of CEO gender, recruitment practices and firm internationalisation on the representation of women in management. Human Resource Management Journal, 27(1), 133–151. doi:10.1111/1748-8583.12135