This study argues that there are different degrees of openness and closedness in innovation activity, and it highlights the need for more research on the "grey areas" between totally open and totally closed innovation, particularly in innovation networks where multiple stakeholders collaborate for innovation. Here, we focus on four key aspects of innovation networks, as characterized by their degrees of openness or closedness: governance, motivation, interaction, and innovation practices. The categorization is based on a review of theory and an empirical analysis of three distinct innovation networks, two of which represent the open living lab model, and one of which exemplifies the traditional closed innovation model. Our results can help managers improve efficiency in innovation networks by better understanding the grey areas between open and closed in innovation.

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Keywords closedness, innovation, innovation network, Living lab, Open innovation, openness
Journal Technology Innovation Management Review
Leminen, Seppo, Turunen, Taija, & Westerlund, M. (2015). The gray areas between open and closed innovation networks. Technology Innovation Management Review, 5(12), 6–18.