Low-bandwidth communication channels are used to support the information exchange between a microgrid centralized controller and local controllers in the secondary frequency control of an islanded microgrid. However, the impact of the inherent time delay in these communication channels on the microgrid performance has not been taken into account when the secondary frequency controller is designed. This paper investigates the effect of the communication delays on the secondary frequency control of an islanded microgrid with multiple distributed generators. A small-signal model-based method is introduced for the microgrid to find delay margins below which the microgrid can remain stable. By performing a series of trial studies, the relationships between secondary frequency control gains and delay margins are obtained. A gain scheduling approach is also proposed to compensate the effect of the communication delay on the secondary frequency control. Results from the Canadian urban distribution system have verified that communication delays can adversely affect the microgrid secondary frequency control, and the proposed gain scheduling approach can improve the robustness of the microgrid secondary frequency controller to communication delays.

Additional Metadata
Keywords communication delays, gain scheduling, microgrid, secondary frequency control, small-signal model
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2014.2367456
Journal IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Liu, S. (Shichao), Wang, X, & Liu, P. (2015). Impact of Communication Delays on Secondary Frequency Control in an Islanded Microgrid. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 62(4), 2021–2031. doi:10.1109/TIE.2014.2367456