Toxic compounds including acids, furans, and phenols (AFP) were generated from the pretreatment of lignocellulose. We cultivated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in a batch mode, besides the cell culture of original yeast strain in AFP-free medium which was referred as C0, three independent subcultures were cultivated under multiple inhibitors AFP and were referred as C1, C2, and C3 in time sequence. Comparing to C0, the cell density was lowered while the ethanol yield was maintained stably in the three yeast cultures under AFP stress, and the lag phase of C1 was extended while the lag phases of C2 and C3 were not extended. In proteomic analysis, 194 and 215 unique proteins were identified as differently expressed proteins at lag phase and exponential phase, respectively. Specifically, the yeast cells co-regulated protein folding and protein synthesis process to prevent the generation of misfolded proteins and to save cellular energy, they increased the activity of glycolysis, redirected metabolic flux towards phosphate pentose pathway and the biosynthesis of ethanol instead of the biosynthesis of glycerol and acetic acid, and they upregulated several oxidoreductases especially at lag phase and induced programmed cell death at exponential phase. When the yeast cells were cultivated under AFP stress, the new metabolism homeostasis in favor of cellular energy and redox homeostasis was generated in C1, then it was inherited and optimized in C2 and C3, enabling the yeast cells in C2 and C3 to enter the exponential phase in a short period after inoculation, which thus significantly shortened the fermentation time.

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Keywords Adaptation, Bioethanol, Inhibitor, Proteomic, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Tolerance
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Journal Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Lv, Y.-J. (Ya-Jin), Wang, X. (Xin), Ma, Q. (Qian), Bai, X. (Xue), Li, B.-Z. (Bing-Zhi), Zhang, W. (Weiwen), & Yuan, Y.-J. (Ying-Jin). (2014). Proteomic analysis reveals complex metabolic regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against multiple inhibitors stress. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 98(5), 2207–2221. doi:10.1007/s00253-014-5519-8