Immune ability and immune expression have been viewed as life-history traits that are influenced by such factors as the likelihood of being parasitized, intensity and costs of parasitism, and trade-offs associated with immune expression. In this paper we show that different patterns of infestation by a generalist ectoparasite, Arrenurus planus Marshall (Arrenuridae: Hydrachnida), do not fully explain the variation in immune expression across four species of sympatric damselflies (Lestidae: Zygoptera). Within species, no gender biases in immune expression were evident. Whereas both males and females of one oft-exploited species did not mount immune responses against attending larval mites, males and females of three other species showed similar immune responses, with variable expression. The immune response was melanotic encapsulation of mite feeding tubes, and was associated with dead mites. Of the three species showing immune expression, the species with the highest prevalence and intensity of infestation had a significantly higher proportion of individuals responding immunologically to mites. In conclusion, current infestation levels only partially predict immune investment; consideration of the timing of emergence of different species suggests that season may be an important predictor of immune investment.

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Journal Canadian Journal of Zoology
Yourth, C.P., Forbes, M, & Smith, B.P. (2001). On understanding variation in immune expression of the damselflies Lestes spp. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 79(5), 815–821. doi:10.1139/cjz-79-5-815