This is the conclusory chapter of the book which presents the state-of-the-art in terms of modeling, simulation, and design of net-zero energy buildings (Net ZEBs), including a combination of modeling fundamentals and theory, a review of selected technologies, and four in-depth case studies of actual near-net-zero to positive energy buildings in four different climatic regions covering both the residential and commercial/institutional sectors. These case studies have clearly identified that the pathways to reach the net-zero energy target are numerous and diverse, but should be carefully customized for the particular building type, its intended function and operation, and climate. The book reveals the importance of choosing the right approach and model resolution at different stages of the design. It identifies important gaps in building simulation and design tools as well as methodologies. The book explains modeling and design issues for the common and appropriate technologies, systems, and strategies for Net ZEBs.

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Keywords Model resolution, Net-zero energy buildings (Net ZEBs), Positive energy buildings
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Athienitis, A. (Andreas), & O'Brien, W. (2015). Conclusion, research needs, and future directions. In Modeling, Design, and Optimization of Net-Zero Energy Buildings (pp. 351–354). doi:10.1002/9783433604625.ch08