Establishment of parasitoids of the lily leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in North America
Environmental Entomology , Volume 46 - Issue 2 p. 226- 236
Three larval parasitoids were imported from Europe to control the lily leaf beetle, Lilioceris lilii Scopoli (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an accidentally introduced herbivore of native and cultivated lilies in North America. Tetrastichus setifer Thomson (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was introduced in Massachusetts in 1999, and was found to be established there in 2002. Subsequent releases of T. setifer were made and two additional parasitoids, Lemophagus errabundus Szepligeti (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and Diaparsis jucunda (Holmgren) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), were introduced. The establishment and distribution of the three parasitoids was evaluated through 2016. Tetrastichus setifer is now established in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Maine, Connecticut, and Ontario, Canada. Lemophagus errabundus is established in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and D. jucunda is established in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Maine. All three parasitoids have spread at least 10km from release sites. The establishment of T. setifer is associated with a substantial reduction of L. lilii. In time it is likely that the parasitoids will spread throughout the North American range of L. lilii. This process can be accelerated to protect ornamental and native lilies by collecting and redistributing parasitoids to new infestations of L. lilii.
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Tewksbury, L. (Lisa), Casagrande, R.A. (Richard A.), Cappuccino, N, & Kenis, M. (Marc). (2017). Establishment of parasitoids of the lily leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in North America. Environmental Entomology, 46(2), 226–236. doi:10.1093/ee/nvx049