Co-channel and adjacent-channel interferences play a major role in determining the utilization level of the radio spectrum. The interference field created by co-located radio systems reduces the number of assignable frequencies. Therefore, the remaining spectrum available for further assignments at any time is usually less than the unused portion of the spectrum. In this paper, we develop a model that can be used to calculate the true level of spectrum utilization in a given area. The proposed model takes into account the geographical distribution of radio systems and quantifies the relation between the variance of system’s locations and the amount of assignable spectrum. The validity of the model is verified by numerical examples and by data collected in three major Canadian cities.

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Journal IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Hafez, H.M., Towaij, S., & Goubran, R. (1990). The Effect of User’s Geographical Distribution on the Utilization of Radio Spectrum. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 32(4), 284–291. doi:10.1109/15.59888