The thoracic respiratory organ of the pupa of the genus Tanypus is usually assumed to lack a plastron element. Little information has appealed in the literature regarding the active site(s) of respiration. However, it has been inferred that the aeropyle-like structure at the tip of the organ serves in that role. Detailed examination of Tanypus carinatus Sublette var. respiratory organs by means of the scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and light microscope indicates the presence of a respiratory complex, whose elements bear structural similarities to those of plastrons, and which covers the entire surface of the respiratory organ. The subsurface meshwork, which previously has been interpreted as only supportive in function, is shown to be tubular, and appears to be intimately connected with the plastron-like surface elements. Functional and evolutionary implications of this plastron-like arrangement are discussed.

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Keywords Aeropyle, plastron, thoracic respiratory organ
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Journal International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology
Gottlieb, F.J. (Frederick Jay), Coffman, W.P. (William P.), & Carmody, G.R. (George R.). (1974). Pupal respiratory complex of Tanypus carinatus sublette var. (Diptera: Chironomidae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology, 3(1), 147–155. doi:10.1016/S0020-7322(74)81014-7