The paper presents detailed measurements of the tip-leakage flow emerging from a planar cascade of turbine blades. Four clearances of from 1.5 to 5.5 percent of the blade chord are considered. Measurements were made at the trailing edge plane, and at two main planes 1.0 and 1.56 axial chord lengths downstream of the cascade. The results give insight into several aspects of the leakage flow, including the size and strength of the leakage vortex in relation to the size of the tip gap and the bound circulation of the blade, and the evolution of the components of vorticity as the vortex diffuses laterally downstream of the blade row. The vortex was found to have largely completed its roll-up into a nearly axisymmetric structure even at the trailing edge of the cascade. As a result, it was found that the vortex could be modeled surprisingly well with a simple model based on the diffusion of a line vortex.

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Journal Journal of Turbomachinery
Yaras, M, & Sjolander, S. (1990). Development of the tip-leakage flow downstream of a planar cascade of turbine blades: Vorticity field. Journal of Turbomachinery, 112(4), 609–617. doi:10.1115/1.2927701