The identification, persistence, accumulation and trophic transfer of 25 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, 23 non-PBDE halogenated flame retardants (NPHFRs), 4 polybrominated-diphenoxybenzenes (PB-DiPhOBzs) and 6 methoxylated (MeO-) PB-DiPhOBzs were investigated in predator and prey fish collected in 2010 from sites in the North American Great Lakes of Ontario (n = 26) and Erie (n = 39). Regardless of locations or species, 20 PBDEs and 12 NPHFRs were quantifiable in at least one of the 65 analyzed samples, and polybrominated-1,4-diphenoxybenzenes (PB-DiPhOBzs) and MeO-PB-DiPhOBzs were not detectable in any of analyzed samples. Among the FRs, the greatest concentrations were the -PBDE, ranging from 1.06 (Rainbow Smelt, Lake Erie) to 162 (Lake Trout, Lake Ontario) ng/g wet weight (ww), which was followed by mean HBCDD concentrations ranging ND to 17.3 (Lake Trout, Lake Ontario) ng/g ww. The remaining FRs were generally not detectable or at sub-ppb levels. In most of cases, FR concentrations in samples from Lake Ontario were greater than those from Lake Erie. Strong and significant positive linear relationships occurred between log-normalized FR concentrations (ww or lipid weight (lw)) and ages of the top predator Lake Trout (n = 16, from Lake Ontario), and the estimated FR doubling ages (T2) were 2.9-6.4 years. For Walleye from Lake Erie, significantly positive linear relationships were also observed for some FRs, but the linear relationships generally became negative after FR concentrations were normalized with lipid weight. This study provides novel information on FR accumulation in aquatic organisms, and for the first time, significant positive linear relationships are reported between log-normalized FR concentrations (lw or ww) and ages of Lake Trout from the Great Lakes.

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Journal Environmental Science and Technology
Su, G. (Guanyong), Letcher, R.J, McGoldrick, D.J. (Daryl J.), & Backus, S.M. (Sean M.). (2017). Halogenated Flame Retardants in Predator and Prey Fish from the Laurentian Great Lakes: Age-Dependent Accumulation and Trophic Transfer. Environmental Science and Technology, 51(15), 8432–8441. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b02338