Techno-economic impact of retrofitting houses in the Canadian housing stock with PV and BIPV/T systems is evaluated using the Canadian Hybrid End-use Energy and Emission Model. Houses with south, south-east and south-west facing roofs are considered eligible for the retrofit since solar irradiation is maximum on south facing surfaces in the northern hemisphere. The PV system is used to produce electricity and supply the electrical demand of the house, with the excess electricity sold to the grid in a net-metering arrangement. The BIPV/T system produces electricity as well as thermal energy to supply the electrical as well as the thermal demands for space and domestic hot water heating. The PV system consists of PV panels installed on the available roof surface while the BIPV/T system adds a heat pump, thermal storage tank, auxiliary heater, domestic hot water heating equipment and hydronic heat delivery system, and replaces the existing heating system in eligible houses. The study predicts the energy savings, GHG emission reductions and tolerable capital costs for regions across Canada. Results indicate that the PV system retrofit yields 3% energy savings and 5% GHG emission reduction, while the BIPV/T system yields 18% energy savings and 17% GHG emission reduction in the Canadian housing stock. While the annual electricity use slightly increases, the fossil fuel use of the eligible houses substantially decreases due to BIPV/T system retrofit.

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Keywords Energy simulation, Low energy design, Photovoltaic electricity, Residential energy use, Solar heating
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Journal Energy and Buildings
Asaee, S.R. (S. Rasoul), Nikoofard, S. (Sara), Ugursal, V.I. (V. Ismet), & Beausoleil-Morrison, I. (2017). Techno-economic assessment of photovoltaic (PV) and building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) system retrofits in the Canadian housing stock. Energy and Buildings, 152, 667–679. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.06.071

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