This paper introduces an autonomous integrated indoor navigation system for ground vehicles that fuses inertial sensors, light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors, received signal strength (RSS) observations in wireless local area networks (WLANs), odometry, and predefined occupancy floor maps. This paper proposes a solution for the problem of automatic self-alignment and position initialization indoors under the absence of an absolute navigation system such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The initial tilt angles (roll and pitch) are estimated by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) that uses two horizontal accelerometers as measurements. The initial position and heading estimation is performed using a subimage matching algorithm based on normalized cross-correlation between projected 2-D LiDAR scans and an occupancy floor map of the environment. The ambiguities in position/heading initialization are resolved using RSS. The proposed position/heading estimation module is also utilized in navigation mode as a source of absolute position/heading updates to EKF for enhanced observability. The state predictor is an enhanced 3-D inertial navigation system that utilizes low-cost microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based reduced inertial sensor set aided by vehicle odometry. In navigation mode, LiDAR scans are used to estimate the vehicle's relative motions using an inertial-aided iterative closest point algorithm. To fuse all available measurements, a multirate multimode EKF design is proposed to correct navigation states and estimate sensor biases. The developed system was tested under a real indoor office environment covered by an IEEE 802.11 WLAN on a mobile robot platform equipped with MEMS inertial sensors, a WLAN interface, a 2-D LiDAR scanner, and a quadrature encoder. Results demonstrated the capabilities of the self-alignment and initialization module and showed average submeter-level positioning accuracy.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Extended Kalman Filter, Indoor Navigation, LiDAR-Aided Navigation, Map-Aided Navigation, MEMS-based Inertial Sensors, Mobile Robots, Multisensor Fusion
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1109/TVT.2015.2397004
Journal IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Citation
Atia, M, Liu, S. (Shifei), Nematallah, H. (Heba), Karamat, T.B. (Tashfeen B.), & Noureldin, A. (Aboelmagd). (2015). Integrated indoor navigation system for ground vehicles with automatic 3-D alignment and position initialization. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 64(4), 1279–1292. doi:10.1109/TVT.2015.2397004