This paper takes advantage of the complementary characteristics of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to provide periodic corrections to Inertial Navigation System (INS) alternatively in different environmental conditions. In open sky, where GPS signals are available and LiDAR measurements are sparse, GPS is integrated with INS. Meanwhile, in confined outdoor environments and indoors, where GPS is unreliable or unavailable and LiDAR measurements are rich, LiDAR replaces GPS to integrate with INS. This paper also proposes an innovative hybrid scan matching algorithm that combines the feature-based scan matching method and Iterative Closest Point (ICP) based scan matching method. The algorithm can work and transit between two modes depending on the number of matched line features over two scans, thus achieving efficiency and robustness concurrently. Two integration schemes of INS and LiDAR with hybrid scan matching algorithm are implemented and compared. Real experiments are performed on an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) for both outdoor and indoor environments. Experimental results show that the multi-sensor integrated system can remain sub-meter navigation accuracy during the whole trajectory.

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Keywords LiDAR, Scan matching, Unmanned ground vehicle, Urban and indoor navigation
Persistent URL
Journal Sensors (Switzerland)
Gao, Y. (Yanbin), Liu, S. (Shifei), Atia, M, & Noureldin, A. (Aboelmagd). (2015). INS/GPS/LiDAR integrated navigation system for urban and indoor environments using hybrid scan matching algorithm. Sensors (Switzerland), 15(9), 23286–23302. doi:10.3390/s150923286