The demand for a reliable and accurate navigation system that can replace Global Positioning System (GPS) in GPS-denied environment has become increasingly imperative. For indoor environment where GPS is almost unavailable or unreliable, the utilization of other sensors such as inertial sensors becomes necessary. However, inertial sensors alone cannot sustain reliable long-term accuracy due to errors accumulation without external periodic corrections. Thus this paper proposes the utilization of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) as an alternative system to provide periodic corrections. In this paper, a tightly-coupled integrated navigation system that integrates LiDAR, a single-axis gyroscope and wheel encoder is introduced. Straight lines detection and extraction algorithm is utilized to estimate the changes in orientation and range from LiDAR to the extracted line. LiDAR-estimated orientation change and range change to the extracted line feature between two consecutive LiDAR scans are first filtered out through a high rate extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to remove the effect of short-term noise associated with LiDAR scans. Then the smoothed orientation and range changes are fused by a low rate EKF with those predicted by gyroscope and wheel encoder. The proposed system is verified through real experiment on a wirelessly controlled Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV). Experimental results indicate that navigation accuracy has been improved to sub-meter and gyroscope bias is precisely estimated.

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Keywords indoor navigation, INS, LiDAR
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Conference 2014 IEEE/ION Position, Location and Navigation Symposium, PLANS 2014
Liu, S. (Shifei), Atia, M, Karamat, T. (Tashfeen), Givigi, S. (Sidney), & Noureldin, A. (Aboelmagd). (2014). A dual-rate multi-filter algorithm for LiDAR-aided indoor navigation systems. In Record - IEEE PLANS, Position Location and Navigation Symposium (pp. 1014–1019). doi:10.1109/PLANS.2014.6851467