The self-organizing map (SOM) is a prominent neural network model that has found wide application in a spectrum of domains. Accordingly, it has received widespread attention both from the communities of researchers and practitioners. As a result, several variations of the basic architecture have been devised, specifically in the early years of the SOM's evolution, which were introduced so as to address various architectural shortcomings or to explore other structures of the basic model. The overall goal of this survey is to present a comprehensive comparison of these networks, in terms of their primitive components and properties. We dichotomize these schemes as being either tree based or non-tree based. We have embarked on this venture with the hope that since the survey is comprehensive and the bibliography extensive, it will be an asset and resource for future researchers.

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Keywords Hierarchical SOM, Self-organizing maps, SOM Variants, Survey
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Journal Pattern Analysis and Applications
Astudillo, C.A. (César A.), & Oommen, J. (2014). Topology-oriented self-organizing maps: A survey. Pattern Analysis and Applications, 17(2), 223–248. doi:10.1007/s10044-014-0367-9