Organ-on-chip (OOC) platforms have attracted attentions of pharmaceutical companies as powerful tools for screening of existing drugs and development of new drug candidates. OOCs have primarily used human cell lines or primary cells to develop biomimetic tissue models. However, the ability of human stem cells in unlimited self-renewal and differentiation into multiple lineages has made them attractive for OOCs. The microfluidic technology has enabled precise control of stem cell differentiation using soluble factors, biophysical cues, and electromagnetic signals. This study discusses different tissue- and organ-on-chip platforms (i.e., skin, brain, blood-brain barrier, bone marrow, heart, liver, lung, tumor, and vascular), with an emphasis on the critical role of stem cells in the synthesis of complex tissues. This study further recaps the design, fabrication, high-throughput performance, and improved functionality of stem-cell-based OOCs, technical challenges, obstacles against implementing their potential applications, and future perspectives related to different experimental platforms.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Biomaterials, Differentiation, Drug discovery, Microfluidics, Organ-on-chip, Stem cells, Tissue engineering
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.201700426
Journal Advanced Healthcare Materials
Citation
Geraili, A. (Armin), Jafari, P. (Parya), Hassani, M.S. (Mohsen Sheikh), Araghi, B.H. (Behnaz Heidary), Mohammadi, M.H. (Mohammad Hossein), Ghafari, A.M. (Amir Mohammad), … Sanati-Nezhad, A. (Amir). (2017). Controlling Differentiation of Stem Cells for Developing Personalized Organ-on-Chip Platforms. Advanced Healthcare Materials. doi:10.1002/adhm.201700426