Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are inherently sensitive to temperature, axial strain, and pressure, which can be easily measured by a shift of the Bragg wavelength in their reflected/transmitted power spectrum. FBG sensors acquire many more additional sensing modalities and applications when the polarization of the interrogating light is controlled. For the polarization to have an effect, the cylindrical symmetry of the fiber must be broken, either by the structure of the fiber itself, by that of the FBG, or by the perturbation to be measured. Polarization control allows for sensing parameters that are spatially oriented, such as lateral force, bending or twist, and also for measurements of the properties of anisotropic media. Most importantly, polarization control enables high quality all-fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) FBG sensors and localized SPR-assisted sensing. This tutorial will cover the theory of polarized measurements in fiber gratings, their experimental implementation, and review a selection of the most important applications.

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Keywords Bragg gratings, optical fibers, plasmon, polarization, sensors
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Journal Journal of Lightwave Technology
Caucheteur, C. (Christophe), Guo, T, & Albert, J. (2017). Polarization-Assisted Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors: Tutorial and Review. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 35(16), 3311–3322. doi:10.1109/JLT.2016.2585738