Seabirds are an integral part of Great Lakes ecosystems. However, most species are of no economic importance to humans and, therefore, they receive little direct management attention. Because many species of seabirds on the Great Lakes rely on fish as their primary food, factors that alter fish availability will also affect seabird populations. This paper examines how management practices may indirectly affect Great Lakes seabirds leading to changes in population sizes, diet composition, and destruction of breeding habitat. Consideration of the impacts of management actions on non-target groups, such as seabirds, will require the application of an ecosystem approach to management. Although the ecosystem approach philosophy has been widely accepted from a theoretical perspective, little tangible evidence exists that it has been routinely applied.

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Keywords Ecosystem approach, Fish-eating birds, Great lakes management, Seabirds
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Journal Journal of Great Lakes Research
Hebert, C.E, & Sprules, W.G. (W. Gary). (2002). The relevance of seabird ecology to great lakes management. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 28(1), 91–103. doi:10.1016/S0380-1330(02)70565-0