Blast loads are categorized as far-field and near-field loads in terms of the scaled distance. Far-field and near-field loading are associated with explosions that occur at scaled distances of more than or less than 1.18 m/kg1/3, respectively. The blast waves from a far-field explosion arrive simultaneously at and exert uniformly distributed pressure on a target. Response computations can be performed using the semi-empirical relations (charts) presented in UFC-3-340 design manual, ConWep program or high fidelity physics based commercial software like LS-DYNA, AUTODYN, and ABAQUS. On the other hand, for near-field blasts, the interaction between blast waves and structures is more complex. Near-field events are characterized by a high temperature fireball and extremely high magnitude, spatially and temporally non-uniform overpressure. It has been reported by many researchers that existing empirical relationships are inaccurate to determine blast parameters of near-field explosions. Numerical codes exist that are capable of modeling the detonation process, propagation of shock wave and shock-structure interaction for near-field explosions. However, well-established experimental data that can be used to validate such models is limited. Furthermore, the experimental data available is focused on response of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs/walls, various façade elements and steel plates. A review of the literature suggests that there is limited experimental work on response of RC columns in the near-field and especially contact explosions. This article reviews the state-of-the-art of near-field and contact explosions to understand the current level of knowledge in this field and to identify research needs/gaps.

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Keywords ALE, Contact explosions, JWL, MMALE, Near-field, RC columns
Conference Canadian Society for Civil Engineering Annual Conference 2016: Resilient Infrastructure
Dua, A. (Alok), & Braimah, A. (2016). State-of-the-art in near-field and contact explosion effects on reinforced concrete columns. In Proceedings, Annual Conference - Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (pp. 2973–2984).