The objective of this research was to examine the relationships between the dependent variable of work-family conflict (operationalized as overload, work to family interference, family to work interference) and the independent variables of gender, family type, and perceived control. The sample consisted of 1,989 single-parent and dual-income employees with children ages 6 through 12. The findings indicated that individuals with higher perceived control have lower levels of overload and interference. Women had higher levels of overload and interference than did men. Single parents had similar levels of overload and interference from family to work as married individuals.

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Journal Journal of Family Issues
Duxbury, L, Higgins, C. (Christopher), & Lee, C. (Catherine). (1994). Work-Family Conflict: A Comparison by Gender, Family Type, and Perceived Control. Journal of Family Issues, 15(3), 449–466. doi:10.1177/019251394015003006