This paper describes the validation of a new code for prediction both aeroacoustic and aeroelastic behaviour of hingeless rotors. The structural component is based on a non-linear beam element model considering small strains and finite rotations, which uses a mixed variational intrinsic formulation. The aerodynamic component is built on a low-order panel method incorporating a vortex particle free-wake model. The aerodynamic and structural components are combined to form a closely coupled aeroelastic code that solves in the time-domain. The loading and thickness noise terms for the aeroacoustic calculations are calculated from the aerodynamic data using a formulation based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation. The code is successfully validated for acoustic signature and BVI predictions using test cases from the HELINOISE program.

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Nitzsche, F, & Opoku, D.G. (D. G.). (2005). Acoustic validation of a new code using particle wake aerodynamics and geometrically-exact beam structural dynamics.