Purpose: To study the effect of functional foods on human cytochrome P450 (CYP) and the gut bacterial microflora that may potentially affect drug metabolism and ultimately affect human health and wellness. Methods: This study examined a variety of food plants from the Apiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae families for their inhibitory potential on cytochrome 2D6-, 3A4-, 3A5-, and 3A7-mediated metabolism. The antimicrobial effects of these samples were also investigated with 7 selected bacterial surrogate species to determine potential effects on the gut microflora. Results: The highest CYP inhibitory activities, based upon visual examination, were observed from extracts of celery seed, cumin, fennel seed, basil, oregano, and rosemary belonging to the Apiaceae and Lamiaceae families, respectively. Likewise, the strongest antimicrobial activities were also observed in the Apiaceae and Lamiaceae. No significant antimicrobial and CYP inhibition was observed in the Fabaceae extracts. Conclusion: Results demonstrated the possible risk of food-drug interactions from spice and herb plants may affect drug disposition and safety.

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Journal Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Nguyen, S. (San), Huang, H. (Huang), Foster, B.C. (Brian C.), Tam, T.W. (Teresa W.), Xing, T, Smith, M, … Akhtar, H. (Humayoun). (2014). Antimicrobial and P450 inhibitory properties of common functional foods. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17(2), 254–265.