Background Individuals with MS undergoing immunoablative therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) show substantial decrease in brain volume over 2.4 months, presumably from chemotoxic effects, although other mechanisms have also been postulated. Objective We examined whether volume loss was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in cognition. White and gray matter volumes, and the effect of stem cell dosage were considered. Methods Seven individuals with rapidly progressing MS and poor prognosis underwent high dose immunosuppression and autologous HSCT. Neuropsychological testing and MRI scans were performed at baseline, 2 and 24 months post-procedure. Results Cognitive impairment was noted at all times in most participants. Median decline of 1.39% in total brain volume was noted 2 months post-HSCT. By 24 months a further decline of 1.65% was noted. At 2 months significant decline was observed for areas of executive functioning. At 24 months almost no significant declines were noted. No significant correlations were found between cognitive decline and change in imaging variables or stem cell dosage. Conclusions Cognition changed in the early period following treatment but with little apparent relationship to volume changes. With temporal distance from the HSCT procedure, cognition returned to baseline levels. With the caution of a very small sample, preliminary results suggest that immunoablation and HSCT may have no lasting deleterious effects on cognition.

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Keywords Cognition, Immunoablation, Information processing speed, MRI, Multiple sclerosis, Stem cell
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Journal Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders
Walker, L.A.S, Berard, J.A. (J. A.), Atkins, H.L. (H. L.), Bowman, M. (M.), Lee, H. (H.), & Freedman, M.S. (M. S.). (2014). Cognitive change and neuroimaging following immunoablative therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in multiple sclerosis: A pilot study. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, 3(1), 129–135. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2013.05.001