The combination of phototoxic drugs and ultraviolet (UV) radiation can trigger the release of proinflammatory cytokines. The present study measured the ability of sunscreens to prevent cytokine secretion in human keratinocytes following cotreatment of these cells with a known photoreactive drug and UVA. Keratinocytes were treated for 1 h with increasing concentrations of lomefloxacin (LOM) or norfloxacin (NOR), exposed to 15 J/cm2 UVA, and incubated for 24 h. NOR, owing to the absence of a fluorine atom in position 8, was non-phototoxic and used as a negative control. Cell viability and the release of 3 cytokines were assessed, namely interleukin-1α (IL-1α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The measurement of these cytokines may be a useful tool for detecting photoreactive compounds. To measure their ability to prevent cytokine secretion, various sunscreens were inserted between the UVA source and the cells. Treatment with NOR, NOR plus UVA, or LOM had no effect on the cells. LOM plus UVA, however, had an effect on cell viability and on cytokine secretion. IL-1α levels increased with LOM concentration. The release of TNF-α and IL-6 followed the same pattern at lower concentrations of LOM but peaked at 15 μmol/L and decreased at higher concentrations. Sunscreens protected the cells from the effects of LOM plus UVA, as cell viability and levels of cytokines remained the same as in the control cells. In conclusion, the application of broad-spectrum sunscreen by individuals exposed to UVA radiation may prevent phototoxic reactions initiated by drugs such as LOM.

Additional Metadata
Keywords ELISA, Flow cytometric bead array, IL-1α, IL-6, Keratinocytes, Lomefloxacin, Norfloxacin, Proinflammatory cytokines, Sunscreens, TNF-α, UVA, Viability
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1139/y05-126
Journal Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Citation
Reinhardt, P. (P.), Cybulski, M. (M.), Miller, S.M. (S. M.), Ferrarotto, C. (C.), Wilkins, R.C, & Deslauriers, Y. (Y.). (2006). Broad-spectrum sunscreens prevent the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in human keratinocytes exposed to ultraviolet A and phototoxic lomefloxacin. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 84(2), 221–226. doi:10.1139/y05-126