The effects of seasonal change (July versus November) and prolonged anoxia (N2 atmosphere at 5 or 10°C for 6 days) exposure in vivo on the activities of 18 enzymes, as well as the kinetic properties of phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK), were investigated in foot muscle and digestive gland of the marine periwinkle Littorina littorea L. Seasonal differences in enzyme maximal activities were tissue-specific, with generally increased activities during the summer and changes in a greater number of enzymes in digestive gland than in foot muscle. Seasonal differences in the kinetic properties of PFK and PK were observed in both tissues. PK from digestive gland of winter animals showed a much higher S0.5 for phosphoenolpyruvate and stronger changes in enzyme kinetic properties in response to anoxia than did the enzyme in summer animals; this may suggest the presence of seasonal isozymes. The effects of anoxia were tissue- and season-specific. Anoxia exposure during the winter induced a greater number of changes in enzyme maximal activities in foot muscle than in digestive gland. Anoxia-induced changes in the kinetic properties of both PFK and PK were also seen in both organs. For PK, these changes were consistent with less active enzyme forms in the anoxic state. Hence, both seasonal and environmental (anoxia) factors influence enzyme maximal activities and kinetic properties in L. littorea.

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Journal Canadian Journal of Zoology
Greenway, S.C., & Storey, K. (2001). Effects of seasonal change and prolonged anoxia on metabolic enzymes of Littorina littorea. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 79(5), 907–915. doi:10.1139/cjz-79-5-907