The question remains over what a private market, even one that is well-regulated and modified, ultimately means for the future of Cuban society. This article examines the impact of the recent economic changes in Cuba on women, and explores whether the status of women in Cuba can be sustained or improved with the introduction of a modified private market economy. Based on field visits to Cuba and on secondary sources, the authors discuss the status of Cuban women since the Revolution, and document the changes and challenges that these women currently face. The authors conclude that the unique gains of women following the Revolution may be threatened by the imperatives of a market-driven economy, but that Cuban women appear to be bracing themselves for the struggles that this may entail. Cuban women have retained their commitment to gender equality and are actively working toward improving their status in society.