Passive brain-computer interfaces consider brain activity as an additional source of information, to augment and adapt the interface instead of controlling it. We have developed a software system that allows for real time brain signal analysis and machine learning classification of affective and workload states measured with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) called the online fNIRS analysis and classification (OFAC). Our system reproduces successful offline procedures, adapting them for real-time input to a user interface. Our first evaluation compares a previous offline analysis with our online analysis. While results show an accuracy decrease, they are outweighed by the new ability of interface adaptation. The second study demonstrates OFAC's online features through real-time classification of two tasks, and interface adaptation according to the predicted task. Accuracy averaged over 85%. We have created the first working real time passive BCI using fNIRS, opening the door to build adaptive user interfaces. Copyright

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Keywords Adaptive communications, BCI, Brain-computer interface, FNIRS, Functional near-infrared spectroscopy, Passive BCI, PFC, Prefrontal cortex, Task classification, Workload
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Journal International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems
Girouard, A, Solovey, E.T. (Erin Treacy), & Jacob, R.J.K. (Robert J.K.). (2013). Designing a passive brain computer interface using real time classification of functional near-infrared spectroscopy. International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems, 6(1), 26–44. doi:10.1504/IJAACS.2013.050689