Photolysis of highly brominated flame retardants leads to time-dependent dioxin-responsive mRNA expression in chicken embryonic hepatocytes
Tetradecabromo-1,4-diphenoxybenzene (TeDB-DiPhOBz) and 2,2′,3,3′,4,4′,5,5′,6,6′-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) are flame retardant chemicals that can undergo photolytic degradation. The present study compared the time-dependent photolyic degradation of TeDB-DiPhOBz and BDE-209, and dioxin-like product formation as a result of (UV) irradiation (I; irradiation time periods of 0, 1, 4, 15 and 40 days). Photo-degraded product fractions of UV-I-TeDB-DiPhOBz (nominal concentration: 1.9 μM) were administered to chicken embryonic hepatocytes (CEH), and significant induction of CYP1A4/5 mRNA expression was observed for fractions collected at the day 15 and 40 time points (fold change of 7.3/3.6 and 9.1/4.7, respectively). For the UV-I-BDE-209 fractions (nominal concentration: 10 μM), significant CYP1A4/5 up-regulation occurred at all time points, and the fraction collected on day 1 induced the greatest fold change of 510/86, followed by 410/68 (day 4) and 110/26 (day 15), respectively. For the UV-I-BDE-209 fraction collected at day 40, significant CEH cytotoxicity was observed. As a result, CYP1A4/5 expression was determined at a nominal concentration of 1 μM instead of 10 μM and CYP1A4/5 fold changes of 11/8.2 (day 40) were observed. Fractions eliciting the greatest CYP1A4/5 mRNA upregulation were further screened for transcriptomic effects using a PCR array comprising 27 dioxin-responsive genes. A total of 6 and 16 of the 27 target genes were up or down-regulated following UV-I-TeDB-DiPhOBz and UV-I-BDE-209 exposure, respectively. Overall, and regardless of the formation rate, these results raise concerns regarding the potential formation of dioxin-like compounds from flame retardants in products and materials such as plastics, and in natural sunlight irradiation situations in the environment (e.g. in landfill sites or electronic waste facilities).
|Keywords||Brominated flame retardants, Chicken embryonic hepatocytes, Cytotoxicity, mRNA expression, Photolytic degradation, Time course|
Su, G. (Guanyong), Letcher, R.J, Farmahin, R. (Reza), & Crump, D. (Doug). (2018). Photolysis of highly brominated flame retardants leads to time-dependent dioxin-responsive mRNA expression in chicken embryonic hepatocytes. Chemosphere, 194, 352–359. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.11.153