Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)–1 influences fetal growth by modifying insulin-like growth factor–I (IGF-I) bioavailability. IGFBP-1 phosphorylation, which markedly increases its affinity for IGF-I, is regulated by mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and casein kinase (CSNK)–2. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We examined the cellular localization and potential interactions of IGFBP-1, CSNK-2β, and mTOR as a prerequisite for protein–protein interaction. Analysis of dual immunofluorescence images indicated a potential perinuclear co-localization between IGFBP-1 and CSNK-2β and a nuclear co-localization between CSNK-2β and mTOR. Proximity ligation assay (PLA) indicated proximity between IGFBP-1 and CSNK-2β as well as mTOR and CSNK-2β but not between mTOR and IGFBP-1. Three-dimensional rendering of the PLA images validated that IGFBP-1 and CSNK-2β interactions were in the perinuclear region and mTOR and CSNK-2β interactions were also predominantly perinuclear rather than nuclear as indicated by mTOR and CSNK-2β co-localization. Compared with control, hypoxia and rapamycin treatment showed markedly amplified PLA signals for IGFBP-1 and CSNK-2β (approximately 18-fold, P = 0.0002). Stable isotope labeling with multiple reaction monitoring–mass spectrometry demonstrated that hypoxia and rapamycin treatment increased IGFBP-1 phosphorylation at Ser98/Ser101/Ser119/Ser174 but most considerably (106-fold) at Ser169. We report interactions between CSNK-2β and IGFBP-1 as well as mTOR and CSNK-2β, providing strong evidence of a mechanistic link between mTOR and IGF-I signaling, two critical regulators of cell growth via CSNK-2.

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Journal American Journal of Pathology
Singal, S.S. (Sahil S.), Nygard, K. (Karen), Dhruv, M.R. (Manthan R.), Biggar, K.K, Shehab, M.A. (Majida A.), Li, S.S.-C. (Shawn S.-C.), … Gupta, M.B. (Madhulika B.). (2018). Co-Localization of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-1, Casein Kinase-2β, and Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells as Demonstrated by Dual Immunofluorescence and in Situ Proximity Ligation Assay. American Journal of Pathology, 188(1), 111–124. doi:10.1016/j.ajpath.2017.09.009