A simple model for the characterization of single-mode channel waveguides fabricated by a two-step [FORMULA OMITTED] ion-exchange in glass is described. The model is completely determined with data exclusively for planar waveguide measurements and can be extended to other types of exchange or substrates. A directional coupler was designed, fabricated, and measured to show both the usefulness and accuracy of the model and also the relaxation of the fabrication tolerances provided by the two-step ion-exchange.

Journal of Lightwave Technology
Department of Electronics

Albert, J, & Yip, G.L. (Gar Lam). (1988). Wide Single-Mode Channels and Directional Coupler by Two-Step Ion-Exchange in Glass. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 6(4), 552–563. doi:10.1109/50.4037