This paper addresses the reason why the EU had such a great deal of trouble committing to the Ottawa Process to ban landmines. Though a number of EU member states were key proponents of a comprehensive ban, the 1997 Joint Action on landmines fell well short of wholehearted support for a ban. In the Joint Action, the EU restricted the transfer and production of anti-personnel mines but not their use or stockpiling, despite the fact that all but one of the member states were prepared or already had banned the weapons outright. The paper argues that an intergovernmental explanation of the agreement on the 1997 Joint Action requires an account of the Europeanizing influence of regular EU meetings, the role of the Council presidency, and the relative transparency of intra-EU negotiations. The paper describes European involvement in the campaign to ban anti-personnel mines and the reasons why landmines were an issue in the CFSP; explains the development of EU policy on the landmines ban up to and including the 1997 Joint Action; and concludes with the implications of this analysis for the EU's ability to act on complex foreign and security policy issues.

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Journal of European Public Policy
Norman Paterson School of International Affairs

Long, D. (2002). The European Union and the Ottawa Process to ban landmines. Journal of European Public Policy, 9(3), 429–446. doi:10.1080/13501760210139704