Comparison of the shapes of barefoot impressions from an individual with footprints or shoes linked to a crime may be useful as a means of including or excluding that individual as possibly being at the scene of a crime. The question of the distinguishability of a person's bare-foot print arises frequently. This study indicates that measurements taken from the outlines of inked footprint impressions show a great degree of variability between donors and a great degree of similarity for multiple impressions taken from the same donor. The normality of the set of measurements on footprint outlines that we have selected for this study is confirmed. A statistical justification for the use of the product rule on individual statistical precisions is developed.

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Keywords Barefoot impressions, Convex hull, Footprint, Forensic science, Principal component analysis, Product rule
Journal Journal of Forensic Sciences
Kennedy, R.B. (Robert B.), Pressman, I, Chen, S. (Sanping), Petersen, P.H. (Peter H.), & Pressman, A.E. (Ari E.). (2003). Statistical analysis of barefoot impressions. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 48(1), 55–63.