Cell switch-off (CSO) is an important approach to reducing energy consumption in cellular networks during off-peak periods. CSO addresses the research question of which cells to switch off when. Whereas online CSO, based on immediate user demands and channel states, is problematic to implement and difficult to model, offline CSO is more practical and tractable. Furthermore, it is known that regular cell layouts generally provide the best coverage and spectral efficiency, which leads us to prefer regular static (offline) CSO. We introduce sector-based regular CSO patterns for the first time. We organize the existing and newly introduced patterns using a systematic nomenclature; studying 26 patterns in total. We compare these patterns in terms of energy efficiency and the average number of users supported, via a combination of analysis and simulation. We also compare the performance of CSO with two benchmark algorithms. We show that the average number of users can be captured by one parameter. Moreover, we find that the distribution of the number of users is close to Gaussian, with a tractable variance. Our results demonstrate that several patterns that activate only one out of three sectors are particularly beneficial; such CSO patterns have not been studied before.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Cell switch-off (CSO), Cellular networks, Downlink, Energy consumption, green cellular networks, Interference, OFDM, offline CSO, renewal processes, sector-based CSO, Signal to noise ratio, Switches
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1109/TWC.2018.2804397
Journal IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Citation
Beitelmal, T. (Tamer), Szyszkowicz, S. (Sebastian), Gonzalez Gonzalez, D. (David), & Yanikömeroǧlu, H. (2018). Sector and Site Switch-Off Regular Patterns for Energy Saving in Cellular Networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications. doi:10.1109/TWC.2018.2804397