Occupant behavior represents one of the great sources of uncertainty for predicting energy performance of new buildings. However, in many building codes, occupant-related variables are treated as a boundary condition, such that it is adequate to make the same default assumptions about occupants in the reference and proposed design cases for energy modeling. To the contrary, a survey of 274 building simulation practitioners showed that 57% believed this occupant modeling practice is insufficient1

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Journal ASHRAE Journal
Ouf, M. (Mohamed), & O'Brien, W. (2018). Occupant modeling for code compliance and incentive programs. ASHRAE Journal, 60(2), 32–39.