“Haitian Paradox” or Dark Side of the Security-Development Nexus? Canada’s Role in the Securitization of Haiti, 2004–2009
Drawing on analysis of government records obtained using Access to Information Act requests, the author examines the securitization of Canada's aid program to Haiti between 2004 and 2009. The author discusses how Canadian agencies, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), Correctional Service of Canada (CSC), and the Canadian International Development Agency, were involved in capacity-building initiatives that focused on police reform, border surveillance, and prison construction/refurbishment across Haiti in the aftermath of a coup that ousted the democratically elected President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. The author demonstrates how these efforts at securitization resulted in what officials referred to as the "Haitian Paradox," whereby reorganization of the Haitian National Police force led to higher arrest rates and jail bloat, creating conditions that violated rather than ameliorated human rights. While the securitization project may have been based on the rule of law and human rights in Canadian policy makers' official discourse, in practice these securitization efforts exacerbated jail overcrowding, distrust of police, and persecution of political opposition. The author therefore demonstrates one way that international development, aid, and criminal justice intersect, with emphasis on the transnational aspects of RCMP and CSC activities.
|Keywords||borders, Canada, development, Haiti, police reform, prisons, security|
Walby, K. (Kevin), & Monaghan, J. (2011). “Haitian Paradox” or Dark Side of the Security-Development Nexus? Canada’s Role in the Securitization of Haiti, 2004–2009. Alternatives (Vol. 36, pp. 273–287). doi:10.1177/0304375411431760