It is difficult to achieve ideal virtual surgery transparency and stability when virtual tissue stiffness and damping are high. Typically, the stability of the surgery system is improved, while its transparency is sacrificed. In order to achieve high transparency in virtual surgical interactions, a maximum output force controller based on passive theory is proposed in this work. This controller is then applied in a virtual surgery system. The maximum output force controller predicts the maximum allowable output force above which the system passivity is broken and limits the force presented to the operator to this amount. The main contributions of this work include the following two parts: firstly, the maximum output force controller is developed and applied to a virtual surgery system; secondly, a new criterion for transparency is presented and analyzed for the level of transparency that can be achieved for a virtual surgical system when the stability is guaranteed. Experimental results show that the maximum output force controller can guarantee stability of the virtual surgical interaction with maximum transparency even when the virtual tissue stiffness and damping are high. In addition, the maximum output force controller is a self-adaptive controller. It works well without modification, regardless of the virtual tissue stiffness and damping.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Maximum output force controller, Stability, Transparency, Virtual surgery
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1177/1729881418765884
Journal International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems
Citation
Hu, L. (Lingyan), Li, J. (Jianhua), Liu, P, Xiong, P. (Pengwen), & He, S. (Shengxing). (2018). The maximum output force controller and its application to a virtual surgery system. International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 15(2). doi:10.1177/1729881418765884