This study attempts to assess the degree of influence interest groups can exert on the state policy process, specifically via their lobbying activities. The analysis uses data from the 2005-06 Wisconsin Legislative Session to assess the association between lobbying activity and legislative outcomes in one state legislature. The study finds a direct association between lobbying activities and bill outcomes, while also exploring the potential influences of both key political actors and public attention. Public attention is found to reduce the effects of lobbying efforts, suggesting that lobbying is most effective when focused on less salient issues.

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Journal Legislative Studies Quarterly
Grasse, N.J, & Heidbreder, B. (Brianne). (2011). The influence of lobbying activity in state legislatures: Evidence from Wisconsin. Legislative Studies Quarterly, 36(4), 567–589. doi:10.1111/j.1939-9162.2011.00027.x