Classroom response systems are a great technology for enhancing the student classroom experience, and in recent years they have been shown to improve student engagement, aid in knowledge retention, and provide crucial formative feedback for students and educators alike. Unfortunately, it has been suggested that the use of a classroom response system may introduce learning obstructions as well, specifically by confusing participants or distracting students from the material. The authors advocate for a full integration approach of classroom response systems in post-secondary classrooms as a way to preserve the well established benefits while removing the perceived dangers. Such a full integration make use of such systems, not merely as an "accessory" to lectures, but as part of the lecture flow. This full integration allows educators to use classroom response systems throughout the stages of a lecture, but it requires educators to design their lectures utilizing and exploiting the full potential of a classroom response system. The authors' experience with such an approach shows that students highly appreciate it, fully recognize its value, and believe that it enhances their learning experience, all without the perceived threats of distraction or confusion.

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Keywords Classroom Response Systems, Lecture Design, Student Engagement
Conference 10th International Conference on Computer Supported Education, CSEDU 2018
Citation
Kawash, J. (Jalal), & Collier, R. (2018). On the use of classroom response systems as an integral part of the classroom. In CSEDU 2018 - Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Supported Education (pp. 38–46).